Strokes Occur Later and Are Less Severe Than 2 Decades Ago

A registry study of patients in Japan suggests that all stroke types have become less severe over the past 2 decades and are occurring later in life. Short-term functional outcomes also improved for patients with ischemic strokes. The findings appeared in JAMA Neurology.

Dry Eye Disease

This JAMA Insights describes dry eye disease and summarizes its types, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment.

Preempting Dilated Cardiomyopathy Through Family-Based Screening

The substantial health and economic costs exacted by nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are the hallmarks of a disease best prevented rather than treated. DCM affects an estimated up to 1 in 250 individuals in the general population and is characterized by progressive enlargement and contractile dysfunction of 1 or both ventricles of the heart not explained by coronary artery disease or abnormal loading conditions. The disease is a principal cause of clinical heart failure, the leading global indication for cardiac transplant, and even when treated is associated with a 3-year mortality rate of approximately 20%. While several causes of DCM are well-established—including a number of toxic, metabolic, and viral exposures—most cases of DCM remain unaccounted for after thorough assessments for established clinical causes (“idiopathic DCM”), rendering the prediction and prevention of the disorder a major challenge.

Cataract Surgery May Stave Off Dementia Among Older Patients

Older individuals with cataracts who underwent surgery had a lower risk of developing dementia, researchers reported in JAMA Internal Medicine. Glaucoma surgery, which doesn’t restore sight, did not affect dementia risk in the cohort study.

Association of Tramadol vs Codeine Prescriptions With Mortality and Other Adverse Clinical Outcomes—Reply

In Reply Dr Chen and colleagues suggest that potential risk factors (disease severity, concurrent drug use, and lifestyle features) could confound the associations of tramadol vs codeine with the studied outcomes in our recent article. We would like to point out that the disease covariates after propensity score matching were fully balanced between the tramadol and codeine groups, indicating the removal of measured confounding and alleviating the unmeasured covariates through correlations between severe diseases that frequently coexist.


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